For an easier follow-up of referenced sources by a writer, the APA format citation applies the author-year technique of citation. This is among the most used citation and referencing styles and is majorly applicable in science, psychology, and education. The complete APA list of references is located at the end of a research paper or essay, and there are no footnotes.
APA format citation guidelines
Using the APA format citation is not a typical norm in all institutions and disciplines of study. Actually, numerous institutions and their departments have gathered their citation format sheets which are more inclined to other citation styles, including Chicago and Harvard. Therefore, it is commendable that you confirm with your instructor whether using the APA format citation is acceptable for your research paper or essay.
When using the APA format citation, it is important to always adhere to the author-date format for in-text citation. One full reference for every source used must be present in the list of references in the last section of the paper. This implies that the writer’s surname and publication’s year for the source in question must be present in the text, like, for instance, (Stock, 2007). Suppose you are referring to a thought in your APA format citation; however, not directly quoting the context or referring to the whole book, journal, or any other source, you will be required only to cite the writer and the publication’s year but not the page number of the context in the intext citation.
On the other hand, suppose you are directly making reference or quoting from another material; you are expected to include the page number after the parenthesis intext citation. Always use “p” for one-page abbreviation and “pp” to imply multiple pages abbreviation. For instance, you may write (Stock, 2002, p.141) or (Stock, 2002, pp. 141-150). Despite how the intext citations are referenced in the APA format citation, all sources used in the text should be seen in the list of references in the last section of the paper.
Italics, underlining, quotes, capitalization of in-text citation in APA format citation
In APA format citation, always make sure that the proper nouns in intext citation are typed in uppercase, including the names of the writers and initials: A. Lorenzo. Suppose you mention the source’s title within the research paper or essay; you need to make sure all the words that are at least more than four letters long are in uppercase within the source’s title: Pride and Prejudice. Adverbs, adjectives, verbs, pronouns, and nouns are the exclusion of this rule. It is important to note that the only word subject to capitalization in your list of references is the first one.
Also, when writing the titles in uppercase, always make sure that hyphenated compound words are capitalized. For instance, Natural-Born Cyborgs. More factors include typing the word that comes immediately after a colon or dash: “Describing Movie Rhetoric: The Instance of Hitchcock’s Vertigo.” suppose the source’s title is typed in Italics in the list of references, then you have to type it in italics and apply the case of the title capitalization in the paper: The opening of the American Heart; The Wizard of Oz; Compatriots. Finally, suppose the title of your source is not written in Italics in the list of references; you need to use the double quotation marks and capitalize the title case regardless of the list of references using the sentence case: “Channelne Narration;” The One Where Phoebe gets married.”
In APA format citation, suppose you are quoting directly from a source, you will be expected to mention the writer, publication year, and the references’ page number, starting with “p” it is an individual page and “pp” to imply more than one page, then using an en dash to separate the page numbers. Additionally, you can use signal phrases while introducing the quotation, which includes the writer’s surname accompanied by the publication date in parentheses. For instance: According to Stock (1998), “learners frequently had challenges using the APA format citation, particularly when they are new to the style” (p.222). Stock (1998) realized, “ Learners frequently face challenges when using the APA format citation” (p.222); how does this affect the teachers?
Suppose you do not mention the name of the writer in the context of the statement, include the writer’s surname, publication year, and after the quotations, the number of the page in parentheses. For instance: He said, “Learners frequently have challenges using the APA format citation” (Stock, 1998, p.222); however, he did not present any explanation describing this.
In APA format citation, always put the direct quotations, which are forty words or more, in a block of free-standing typed lines and remove the quotation marks. Begin the quotation on a fresh line, a half-inch indention from the left margin, in other words, in a similar position to where you would have started a new paragraph. On the new margin, make sure the whole quotation is typed and the first line of every ensuing paragraph is indented within a half-inch quotation from the new margin.
Additionally, it is significant in APA format citation to have a consistent double spacing lining; however, never put an additional blank line after or before it. After the final punctual mark, ensure it is followed by the parenthetical citation.
Quoting from materials with no page numbers
In APA format citation, direct referencing from materials that do not have page numbers should not quote a page number. Rather, you may quote another valid identifying component, including a table number, chapter number, paragraph, section number, or many more. Older sources such as religious texts may also be included in the special location elements such as verse or chapter numbers. Basically, choose a page number substitute that is relevant to the source in question. A meta-evaluation of available sources ( Stock, 1998) showed inconsistency in a wide scope of studies of learners studying ( Table 7). Stock (1998) realized various reasons students do not prefer the APA format citation (paras.2 -4).
Paraphrase or summary
Suppose you want to paraphrase a text from another source; you only have to make a quote to the writer and the publication year in the intext citation and might not need to remove the page number. The APA format citation rules do not recommend including the range of pages while paraphrasing or summarizing when it will assist the reader in accessing the content in the whole paper.