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Communal Consciousness in Nationalistic Indian English Fiction: Study of Raja Rao’s ‘Kanthapura’




Communal Consciousness in Nationalistic Indian English Fiction: Study of Raja Rao’s ‘Kanthapura’



Communal Consciousness in Nationalistic Indian English Fiction: Study of Raja Rao’s ‘Kanthapura’


The first part of the twentieth century was a critical study of Indian literature by Indian novelists Mulk Raj Anand, Arkanarayanan and Raja Rao. His novels are still revered for their realism about the past. Essentially, books recognize their importance and suppress the period’s political and social problems when writers began writing careers. For this reason, these authors are included among the world’s leading authors. Raja Rao’s works include many fictional and non – fictional works (Komalesha, 2009). Literary works written in English provide an opportunity to know how the author lived and the ancient Indian traditions. Rao’s first novel Kantapuram depicts nineteen to thirty historical events. The book focuses on the villagers of Kantapuram who took part in the Indian independence movement. This word paper describes in detail the features of the novel. It shows the credibility of the Kantapuram novel about the East-West struggle and Gandhi’s influence on the villagers of Kantapuram.

Classification between castes determines the social status of members. When a child comes from Hindu parents, he also becomes a Hindu. If a person belongs to another religion, he cannot join Hinduism (Thapar, 2005). In the village, the caste hierarchy is the “carrier of stability. For centuries, religion has had all spheres. The spiritual experience and argument of Indian traditions increased the population’s credibility during the British rule of their Country, and Western technological progress was more significant than that of India. In the early years of British imperialism, the rural society provided a trend and stability in the face of economic development, rapid change and chaos.

However, the British felt that India was underdeveloped mainly because it was a rural area. India reflects the paradox of a “modern and progressive Britain” in which various cities are highly industrialized. However, India’s characteristics of the British’s inhabitants were embedded in India’s stability and personality. Besides, the village, which is considered anti-urban, played an important role. Unlike the city – which was initially associated with immorality and perfectionism, the town exemplifies authenticity and naturalness. As a result of British rule, they had their traditions and Indian values ​​as community members before the practical effect. Raja Rao’s first novel is of interest to those who want to know about Indian rural life, as it refers to this society as the “Agricultural Society” (Butt, 2021). The novel begins with a vivid description of the village of Kantapuram, “the highest of the ghats” in “Kara Province”. The town is divided into five districts: “Brahmin Quarter”, “Parayya Quarter”, “Potters Quarter”, “Weavers Quarter”, and “Sudra Quarter”. In this sense, each caste group has a unique social climate and is a “traditional rural community” in which they live and work.

The narrator, who describes the landscape and introduces acquaintances, leads the reader around the village to an elderly village woman named Akaka. The novel creates a serene atmosphere by mentioning the surrounding Tipur Hill, Himwati River and Lal Kenchamma Hill (Komalesha, 2009). Unfortunately, labour’s noise destroys peace for a moment as Indian objects pass through the sea. When the wagons carrying Indian goods reach the hill, peace returns to Kantapura. This suggests that economic and political British intervention in Indian daily life significantly impacted the villagers.

Colonial India and the Nationalist Movement

One-third of Bengal’s largest province in British India, with 80 million, is Muslim. The uniform emergency of nationalism was most acute, especially in Kolkata and other groups, which arose during the Bengali Savarnas and Bhadralok colonies. Colonial rulers divided Bengal in 1905 to escape Kolkata from East Bengal, creating a Muslim-majority province from East Bengal – the local Hindu educated middle class and Assam – instead of Bengalis. – Minorities in West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (Spivak, 1996). West Bengal, Oriya and Hindi-speaking Biharis surpassed Bengalis in the partition. The national movement became a ridiculous Bengali idea that was not shared equally with other language groups. The loss of Kaka to East Bengal is a departure from the ships of increasing Bengali fundamentalism. At the same time, the partition of Bengal created severe problems for the British, and the deportation of British goods began in Bengal. A significant movement began to gain the characteristic of an indigenous campaign promoting their Country’s culture. Gandhi demanded that the political strategy be clarified. Politically it is about Swaraj, freedom and its call across the Country (Thapar, 2005). The British underestimated Bengali nationality when Bengalis were already ‘backwards’ as a nation and as ‘historical people’. President Fazal al-Haq (1873-1962), Bengali lawyer and landlord; Indian Muslim League (1916-1921), Assamese Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasha (1885-1976); member of Congress and later All India Muslim League), later found proven leaders for his interests. Similar dissatisfaction grew among the Telugu-speaking people of Madras, Bombay, Bengal, and commercially Bombay, especially the elders of steel and textiles.

This was further exacerbated by the growing tensions between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims, which led to the rise of movements such as the Arya Samaj (1875) in Punjab. Another problem with rural violence is the Malabar Coast. However, after the colonial repression of these events, the local Bengali national anthem Bandemataram 1894 “Held the Mother (India)”), written by Bengali novelist Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, became the voice of federal efforts. This dissatisfaction is the growing struggle between different socio-religious groups in the market for political and economic monopolies, exploitation and colonial domination. After the colonial repression, when the Liberal Party won elections in Great Britain in 1906, at the same time, the colonial government continued to be more religious in politics. Instead of making room for local and parliamentary representation, the idea of ​​theological representation emerged.

In 1906, a group of Muslim leaders from the Muhammad Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh, under Ismail’s decisive leadership, dedicated Aga Khan III (1877–1957) to Lord Minto, Viceroy of Shimla. Initiative. The All India Muslim League was soon founded in Decca (see below), initially served by feudal lords, some lawyers and people in business, most of whom were not anti-British. More or less connected to the immigration system. After the Kettle Atot RK announced its modern Turkish editions in 1923 and the abolition of the Caliphate the following year, the Muslim foot in the Indian population became cautious about the Congress party’s promises and the fall of the Khilafat movement. Hundreds of people were killed in Hindu-Muslim riots on the southwest Malabar coast in 1924. Similar religious riots spread to all major cities in northern India, where Muslim “cow slaughter” was reported, and contaminated bodies were found in the mosque (Spivak, 1996). Distrust of the poor in the towns and villages of India was once mistrusted. At each stage of the reform, when the British’s chances of gaining their political power were approaching, sources from various voters and leaders of different parties predicted that inciting violence as an idea was almost dangerous.

After World War I, the old, traditional leadership of the Congress considered the Gandhian Satyagraha to be more radical and revolutionary – liberals such as Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru (1875-1949) formed their party (eventually organized by the National Liberal Federation). Like Jinnah, others have entirely withdrawn from political life. Far from Gandhi, an illiterate Hindu devotee, Jinnah devoted himself to his lucrative Bombay legal training. Still, his strength and ambition brought him back to the Muslim League’s leadership, founded in the 1930s. Re-established in a decade. Jinnah called on Viceroy Lord Irwin (later to rule Halifax for the first year and later from 1926–31) and Prime Minister MacDonald to set up a London conference. Liaquat Ali Khan first asked many Muslims in Pakistan. Prime Minister (1947–11) – Permanent President of the Muslim League.

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), one of the greatest Urdu poets in Punjab, attended the Muslim League’s annual meeting in Allahabad. The “Final Judgment” of Indian Muslims is proposed to strengthen the “Muslim Muslim Nation of the North-West”. Although he did not name Pakistan, his proposal included modern Pakistan’s central provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (northwestern border province until 2010) and Balochistan. Jinnah, Aga Khan and other prominent Muslim leaders are in London to attend the Round Table Conference, which will unite all the Indian provinces and princely states as the best constitutional solution for India in the future. British withdrawal. Special election seats and unique guarantees of Muslim “autonomy” or “veto powers” are sufficient to resolve specific religious issues in the event of a civil war or actual partition (Butt, 2021). As long as the British Raj existed, such principles and plans seemed to be dying because the British army could always bring religion to the brink of extreme danger, and the military was still indifferent and in its place. After that – social reorganization – there were no religious sentiments. Muhammad Ali Jinnah led the Muslim League Pakistan call. Over time, religious tensions increased, and this division increased support among Muslim-majority Muslims in British India.

However, as there are Muslim communities across South Asia, independence has brought millions of Muslims into a secular Indian nation’s borders. Currently, Muslims make up 14.2% of India’s population (Ahmad, 1987). Overall, Indian efforts to focus on Pakistan, with perseverance in sustaining their continued progress, have led to Indian nationalism as a significant problem for Indian Muslims in achieving Indian minority rights. It has helped a lot to give India the credibility it needs. It shows a solid secular picture in different parts of the world. Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is a leading Indian Islamic organization that has laid the ideological foundation for the nationalist philosophy of Indian Muslims. His theory is that Muslims and non-Muslims entered India by mutual agreement after independence to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India refers to this agreement. It is called Muwada in Urdu. Accordingly, Muslims’ special duty is to abide by the Constitution because the Muslim community’s elected representatives are loyal to this Muhammad. This Murad is equivalent to a previous agreement between Muslims and Jews in Medina.

Nationalism and Pre-Independence Literature

The nineteenth-century marked the beginning of Indo-English literature. Compared to other writers in India, it is the oldest and the youngest in volume. But it made great strides and gained considerable prominence in Commonwealth literature among national writers as well. It has now reached unprecedented heights and made great progress. Indian writers have made significant contributions to English in the field of fiction. It has been fifty years since the beginning of the Indian English novel, a century and a half (Mercanti, 2009). This short period certainly gave the world some essential books that could only be produced in modern India. Since the publication of Rajmohan’s wife Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1864, the Indian story in English has reached great heights in quality, diversity and maturity. The 1930s were a golden age in post-independence India. These include Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt Satyagraha Movement, the Three Round Table Conferences and the Harijan Movement. Anand could not even react to the impact of the events that occurred to him, but the political action took the form of writing novels with Bankim Chandra.

Being a leftist, he became the winner and voice of the Dominion Trojan. For all nationalist aspirations, Bankim Chandra’s novels are somewhat relevant from Sir Walter Scott’s historical or problematic perspective. Rabindranath Tagore was interested in upper and middle-class people, although his book deals primarily with social issues. His full-length novels include The Wreck, Gora and The Home and the World. Gora wrote to show his vision about the individual’s role in India at the height of his strengths. Krishna Kripalani, in the transition to the most critical intellectual period in modern history, called it Indian mythology. The Russians understood Tolstoy’s war and peace in Indian fiction. Sarath Chandra was interested in the lower middle class, and Munshi Premchand chose his people from the peasants and the poor of Uttar Pradesh. The honest Raj Anand wants to be worse than

Sarathchandra and Premchandra to show the West that Omar may be in the Orient than Khayyam, Lee Po, Tagore and Kipling. Therefore, contract workers call wafat, untouchable bacha, and gangutiya as and kunulo menu. He was at the centre of a plan of cruelty and exploitation around India (Ahmad, 1987). The first novels written by Indians in English were almost unchanging and immature. Although early stories had no artistic value, they worked very hard to establish their place. Of course, we are not interested in these early novels more than the ancient or historical ones. After the First World War, the Indian English story became more realistic and non-idealistic. The levels between the two world wars are mainly related to contemporary society and are influenced primarily by Gandhian ideology and morality. During this time, Mulk Raj Anand, also known as The Great Trio, Neeran and Raja Rao created the work of R.K. Indian English fiction, resulting in the Indian English novel gaining the status of artistic uniqueness and perfection. William Walsh’s significant contribution to the Indians from the 1930s to the 1930s was in line with his abilities’ (1978: 66).

Anand was born a rebel, and his Untouchables (1935) was the first authentic Dalit novel in English. His books reflect Porter’s realism, untouchability, class consciousness and caste-Indian Indian society (Pandey, 2002). As a film about India’s past, Venkataramani’s Kandam Patriot was well received by the people. Arkanarayan writes lightly, and his novels are about the average man and woman, highlighting the confusion. His books are accused of subtle satire and humour. P.G. Mehta commented: In his books, he sees his characters with humour and patience, laughs at their every moment, what they want to reveal and what the differences are.

Narayanan led the Indo-English novel to achievement beyond mere aspiration. He was a child of the Gandhian period. Kanchipuram is famous for its artistic use of India’s formerly rich resources for complex exhibits. The story of how Congress came to Kantapura, a small South Indian village, for India’s independence. The first significant feature of post-independence Indian English fiction was Anand, Narayanan, and Raja Rao’s unification. Anand’s graph does not follow a fixed course but shows fluctuations; His first novel Untouchable is still his best work.

Along with three other volumes, his long autobiography Saga (Seven Summers (1951), Morning Face (1970) and Confession (1976)) promises to be a great fantasy statement: The Economist (1952); Guide (1958), The Man-Eater of Malgudi (1962), and R.K. The whole human condition. Considered effective (Mercanti, 2009). Malgudi’s man-heater. Raja Rao Nagin R. Raspi (1960) is one of the Indian English novels. It is a judgment on the East-West struggle and has not been published as a philosophical and metaphysical novel in the history of Indian English fiction.

Through these essential novels that began in the Gandhian period even after independence, new writers’ emergence on the scene now fails to bring personal talent into the established tradition. Except for Anne Hatter’s solo work on H, post-independence novelists’ training did not match Anand and his two contemporaries. Bhabani Bhattacharya Anand, who was published within a few months of independence, continued the social reality tradition by emphasizing the need for social practice in Enon halls. However, his tendency to relax content with clean and machine-made contradictions to deal with easy sexual solutions slowed his social use in novels such as So Hunger (1947) – a realistic Bengal study in the early eighties. s. Menon has no ideology to promote Maratha. Still, the vinjets of Kerala life are clear, especially in his analysis of the dissolution of the traditional married Nair family in The Wound of Spring (1960). Anand’s novels are deliberately designed to bring great relief to the peasants’ suffering and the weaker sections of Indian society. In the thirties, Anand peaked his power when he wanted to write his first four novels (Pandey, 2002). His first novel, published in 1935, was described as a short classic. The book tells the story of a day in the life of a sweeper boy named Bakha who grew up to be a hero. The hero batch is young and talented, but the upper caste Hindus despise him. Anand draws our attention to our generations’ exploitation and suffering by explaining his consistent work.

However, later Indian English stories underwent a complete or revamped experiment with ancient Indian literary styles. In contrast, while modelling Western resources, it seems to be trying to express the Indian experience of modern assessment: another well-known author and one of the leading figures in the Gandhian era. Although written from 1942 to 1049, the novel begins with the Rowlatt Bill, the Salt Satyagraha and the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, which were included in the 1931 Salt Satyagraha and the Gandhi Irwin Pact. The novelist aims to portray the Gandhian revolutionary period fully. Inquilab means revolution. Gandhi, Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, CR Das, Subhash Chandra Bose, Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajagopalachari, Sarojini Naidu, Dr Ansari, Maulana Azad, Dr These novels are about the selfless efforts of Sapru, Abdul Ghaffar Khan and other important heroes to gain independence from British rule.

C.F. In Andrew’s words, Indian embryos began to unfold in a sudden movement, paving the way for autonomy. After the publication of novels under the influence of Gandhian philosophy, life in our Country should not be the same as before. Politics, economics, education, religion, social life, language, and literature are most pronounced in the Gandhian period. A solid nationalist and crusader for freedom, Gandhi exerted a strong influence on writers through his speeches and writings in passive resistance, honesty and faith in non-violence. After thirty-five years of continuous struggle, in ‘Quit India’ in 1942, Gandhi told the British that we must abandon God or cause trouble. Gandhian political, economic, educational and moral views were under the auspices of Hindu Swaraj. The 1930s were the most challenging year in Indian history. It was the decade that culminated in the Indian independence struggle. Mulk Raj Anand and Raja Rao Gandhi could not stay away from the movement.








Ahmad, A. (1987). Jameson’s Rhetoric of Otherness and the” National Allegory”. Social text, (17), 3-25.

Butt, B. (2021). An Analysis of Kanthapura by Raja Rao: A Postcolonial Study. Psychology and Education Journal, 58(1), 4701-4708.

Komalesha, H. S. (2009). Desi” Kanthapura”, Marga” The Serpent and the Rope”: Reassessing the Literary Lineage and Value of Raja Rao. Indian Literature, 53(6 (254), 202-217.

Mercanti, S. (2009). The rose and the lotus: Partnership studies in Raja Rao’s works (Vol. 122). Rodopi.

Pandey, K. M. (2002). Raja Rao” s Kanthapura and RK Narayan” s Waiting for the Mahatma: A Study in Comparison. New Insights Into the Novels of RK Narayan, 154.

Spivak, G. C. (1996). The spivak reader: selected works of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Psychology Press.

Thapar, R. (2005). Somanatha: the many voices of history. Verso.


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