1. Introduction of Sustainable Cities- Sustainable Cities: An Overview in from the Malaysian Perspective
This chapter consists of the information related with background of the study, problem statement, research questions, research objectives and significance of study. Generally, this research aims to study smart mobility, and more specifically the sustainable aspect of smart mobility and its features.
1.1 Overview of Sustainable Cities
As human beings continue to evolves, it is imminent that society has to be sustainable when it concerns the environmental impacts they contribute to the land. Frost & Sullivan proposes that a smart city which has an active presence and plan in at least five of the eight criteria below and has clearly demonstrated projects in place. The eight aspects are smart governance; smart energy; smart building; smart mobility; smart infrastructure; smart technology; smart healthcare; and smart citizen. Helsinki, London, and Vienna are expected to achieve smart city status among others by 2025.
Future trends relating to automation and wireless networks are predicted to cause new trends that will translate into how smart cities are designed. Ultimately smart cities should aim to impact a society by upgrading their living standard. This will lead to residents more willing to pay their taxes, which increases the taxable percentage of its residents. Tax-payers can have the peace of mind knowing that their tax dollars are being put to good use as the city has a responsible plan in place to distribute the funds accordingly to keep the economy healthy (Frost & Sullivan Value Proposition). In the context of Malaysia, the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Corporation system around the Klang Valley is the latest rendering of smart mobility infrastructure to be added to the nation’s capital. The MRT Corp consist of several lines that connect locations of increasing areas as compared to the older providers The MRT is an entity owned by the corporate wing of the Malaysian Ministry of Finance (MOF). The project was launched in 2011 and is expected to be completed by 2021 (MRT Corp) .
An MRT is necessary due to Malaysia being a relatively small and young country, cities house upwards of 70% of the population. With the majority of the labour force in the city, it is not surprising that over 90% of economic activity occurs within its major cities. Between 2010 and 2015, Malaysia’s total population grew by 1.8% annually, whereas the population within urban areas grew by 2.66%. With this in mind, we can anticipate that urbanization will overtake national population growth so much so that come 2030, more than 82% of Malaysians will be city-dwellers. This mass urbanization strongly drives the nation’s economic growth, with most of that growth being focused in urban areas. As with any rapid growth, there are detrimental side effects. In the case of the rapid urbanization of the Malaysian population, the ability to sustainably develop city spaces are faced with numerous climate changes. These challenges threaten the viability to develop smart mobility systems within these urban areas. As with any modern city, Green House Gases (GHG) has increased tremendously with the rapid urbanization and industrialization within the city. Dependence on fossil fuels and its high carbon intensity, and poorly managed public transportation system coupled with a high demand for mobility combined with a supply of cheap cars in the country has also caused rapid increase of cars as compared to the growth of the population. This adds to the quickly increasing rate of GHG (7% per annum) (GSPC, 2020).
The most noticeable challenge we can observe in our country is the lack of cohesion between the different agencies that are responsible for implementing sustainable police to encourage smart mobility practices within our cities. Without the relevant agencies coming together, policies that are well thought out cannot be successful due to the different agencies who perceive that their autonomy of the organization is threatened due to the fact that the organization itself may be involved in other projects from other vertical and horizontal networks.
1.2 Government Initiatives towards Smart Mobility Within Smart Cities
The Malaysian government and different agencies at different levels of the administration under it carry out different types of activities to help the cities encompass smart mobility systems within it. One of the many enemies of a smart city is urban sprawl. Current development policy documents seek to combat the issue of urban sprawl by pushing forward the idea of compact development where many amenities are closely located. These projects are complemented by the supply of mass public transit, resulting in the development of transit-oriented neighbourhoods (Naeema et al, 2016).
Increased motor vehicle registrations indicates that land transport has grown. This comprises of vehicles that serve as independent public transport providers such as Grab also. It is evident that the number of passengers on light rail transit (LRT) and commuter trains in and around the Klang Valley has increased too. Although it is unfortunate that in certain parts of the country, for instance Sarawak, there are no rail networks. In more secluded parts, the goods and passengers have to utilise river transport such as boats. This means it is crucial to develop a smart public transportation system that is efficient into densely populated areas and is integrated with other modes of transport. It is also important to consider in long-term smart urban planning as it is a key factor when it comes to reversing the increasing energy consumption in the transport sector. Motor vehicle ownership has gone from 4.7 million in 1990 to 20.1 million in 2010. This number increased further to 23.8 million in 2013. First- and last-mile connectivity is also a key factor in when it comes to smart mobility (KSAAS Malaysia) within the smart city sphere. People’s mindsets also need to be cultivated to focus on moving away from private vehicle ownership to public transportation.
As for transport within the urban areas such as the city centre of Kuala Lumpur around the KLCC area, congestion and the detrimental side effects of it such as greenhouse gas emissions, integrating smart mobility with the limited land resource available in the heart of the city can be related to the negative impacts of transportation in urban areas. Some efforts such as developing rail networks that integrate with regional networks, other modes of transport, and also facilities for personal vehicles in urban areas is a strategic direction that Malaysia should be moving forward to.
The nation’s abundance of palm oil has lead the government to propose a solution based on it. One initiative is to slowly nudge the citizens to utilise and normalise the use of more blended fuel sources such as biodiesel. This will require motor-vehicles to be equipped with specific powertrains to cope with the locally blended fuel. Although this idea will need further scrutinising and research as we can assume the willingness of the automotive engines and end users rate of acceptance will be low (KSAAS Malaysia).
1.2.1 – Driving forces behind the initiatives of Malaysian Government
As urbanization takes place, the population increases steadily. With this happening, different layers are affected by the changes. And the Malaysian government has pointed out some of the important aspects as to why they are initiating the coming decade with more smart mobility policies, infrastructure, and facilities.
Naturally as a community becomes more populous, the amount of people commuting will increase. It is estimated there will be an increase of 91 million more trips in 2030 as compared to only 20 years ago. This is an exponential growth. With an increase of the population aged 65 and above, and trends in Malaysia indicate a rise in most categories, except fertility rate which decreases, this trends in mind together with current transport strategies will be a ticking time-bomb. This requires a serious change in the thinking when it comes to how transport in the future should be designed.
As the population grows, most people will be interested to reside where there are the most economic opportunity within a country. , congestion is a detrimental side effect among many others. Increasing urbanization can be observed within the Klang Valley and other major cities around the country. By 2030, the percentage of the nation that will be staying in cities will be a staggering 80%. This also takes a toll on the carbon resources of the nation. The Malaysian government are is taking the initiative to integrate smart mobility as a primary means for the nation. Increasing the effectiveness of management decisions across the company, and also the industry, via IoT based solutions as this will be a skillset for the nation to have because according to a 2014 survey, Malaysian car ownership rates are amongst the highest in the world. This means that sooner or later increasing urbanization will only be sustainable when Malaysia promotes smart mobility policies which ha different modes of transport that are unified (NTP, 2019).
Secondly, and more important than just traffic and transport, the perishable resources required to sustain a population should also be acquired in a environmentally balanced manner. In Malacca for instance, a rapid growth in their economy has led to the government taking an initiative to follow smart mobility guidelines such as the Green City Plan generated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2014 (WBG, 2019). This plan outlines the state’s focus on various dimensions the city can undertake to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Malacca being a heritage city by itself means that the infrastructure of the city may not be accommodating towards modern day dependency on personal automobiles due to its more spaced out nature of infrastructure and of the landscape (Krishnan, 2014). This sprawl is a viable environment to implement smart mobility policies.
Developing smart mobility services by implementing integrated public transport models will be crucial to upkeep the smart city’s future economic growth as the disconnected and fragmented urban form tends to make it hard for the economy to grow without any resistance. Cities with similar landscape should coordinate land use with transport planning to gradually encourage the public to utilise public transport more frequently. This reason will be complemented with enhanced walkability within the urban landscape (WBG, 2019). Smart mobility encompasses walking as a form of transport. Almost no emissions are emitted which encourages walking within a society.
1.2.2 – Significance of Initiatives
As a nation that is moving forward, achieving sustainability is important as only when a city is sustainable can it aim towards accomplishing the various Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) as outlined by the United Nations (UN). By developing the right practices to achieve sustainability, a city can create jobs which lead to better livelihoods, ensure economy growth increases steadily, learn to increase quality of life without depending on natural resources, protect various ecosystems, eradicate poverty in urban and rural settings, and ultimately decrease pollution. All this combined will see a nation achieving the various SDGs outlined by the UN.
Conversely, the consequences of improper urban planning will be very hard to reverse as infrastructure, and land-use for urban systems and layouts are metaphorically set in stone. The effects of improper planning will be felt for many decades to come. Improper foundation planning will see the levels of society being more fragmented resulting in rise of slums, increase in violence, and also an increase in natural resource usage in order to combat the negative impacts of improper planning. As a side effect of this, cities will start failing when it comes to providing economic opportunities therefore surrounding rural areas will be at risk of unfavourable environmental changes (UN Habitat, 2013).
The Malaysian government has committed to reduce carbon emissions to 40% by 2020 with the aid of developed nations. This can be seen in Putrajaya where the public to private transport ratio is 70 to 30. Due to good urban planning currently, the use of land to develop integrated transit has greatly contributed to the reduction of carbon emissions. This is in part thanks to development of neighbourhoods along main transportation networks (Lim, 2013).
1.2.3 – Progress of Initiatives
Comparative to other nations of similar environments and natural resources, it is considered that Malaysia has a moderate performance towards sustainable development. According to a 2011 study titled “A sustainable city index for Malaysia”, the findings indicate that major Malaysian cities have a moderate performance towards becoming a sustainable city. It also notes that management and environmental services are a factor that hold back the performance. Similarly, having a plan is essential to achieve any sustainable plan in a nation. Malacca for instance has a plan to sustainably develop other matters in the state. Whereas when it comes to transport and mobility, the state government does not have a comprehensive transport master plan (WBG, 2019).
Length of roads have also increased somewhat to connect more areas to each other. From the year 2000 to 2005, length of road went up by 33%. Whereas from 2005 to 2007, the length increased by 35%. This indicates that more roads interlinking different parts of communities still are a popular choice. Figure 1.6 presents the breakdown of roads into State and Federal roads. It is evident that the government is taking an initiative by building more roads to increase connectivity.
Figure 1.6 Source: Department of Statistics, 2009.
Motor-vehicle registration has also sloped upward in all categories of vehicles. The number of registrations went up by 58.5 percent from 2000 to 16.8 million in 2007. Registrations can be generally divided into motorcars and motorcycles. In 2000, out of the total motorcycles and motorcars registered, 51% are motorcycles and 38% are motorcars. Whereas in 2007, this number was 47% and 44% respectively. This indicates the Malaysian consumer’s preference for safety has increased. Due to the introduction of cheaper motorcars, this trend is further emphasised. This is presented in Table 1.12 below.
Table 1.12, Motor-Vehicle Registrations, source: Department of Statistics
As for light rail, the four main lines that services the Klang Valley are the Putra, KTM Komuter, Star, and KL Monorail. It is evident that from 2000 to 2007, the number of passengers on these services have been increasing year after year. Approximately 20% of Kuala Lumpur have access to public transport. This includes direct and almost direct access to the transit system.
As we can observe from the above, most rail transport networks experienced an increase in ridership, except for the KL Monorail which decreased. This may be attributed to the addition of the MRT Line which also serves similar areas to the Monorail therefore causing consumer preference to shift as MRT is accessible from areas outside the city centre. Interesting to note is that KLIA Transit rail ridership has almost tripled in 10 years. This indicates a growing trend of people who wish to work in the city centre, but live in the outskirts. The increasing rate of passengers can also be indicative of more economic activities are being conducted in placed further from the traditional locations.
Table 1.13, source: Ministry of Transport
Table 1, 2019 Light Rail Ridership statistics, source: Prasarana Bhd, ERL Sdn Bhd
Table 2.9, 2009 Light Rail Ridership Statistics, Source: Ministry of Transport
Railways that are more dated in Malaysia also serve their purpose in connecting more extensive communities to each other. Approximately 1,800Km of railway tracks have been laid down in Malaysia since independence day over 60 years ago. However, number of passengers on railway has been declining. This may be attributed to the introduction of cheap airline service in Malaysia.
Table 1.14 Rail Transport Passenger Data, source: MoT
Inter-city travel can be more efficient when more people choose to utilise rail connection to travel between cities. For instance, the proposed High Speed Rail System which connect Kuala Lumpur to Singapore and various places in between is a good initiative among others.
1.3 Challenges in Implementing S art Mobility Policies Among Malaysians.
There is bound to be challenges in adopting sustainable practices in order to promote smart mobility amongst Malaysians. Some challenges that may be faced when pushing forward the idea of sustainable mobility may be faced with the following challenges: isolated solutions whereby one provider’s effort may not be able to complement other provider’s idea of sustainable mobility. Secondly, difference in technologies in the industry make it harder to adopt. And thirdly, high costs of investment to achieve interoperability may make it ineffective for the industry to approach the idea of smart mobility. For example, introducing new fuels into the market presents a number of uncertainties such as availability of raw material, production costs, marketability, and post-sales services. (Hylén et al., 2013).
Another challenge stems from mobility’s inherent complex patterns which means launching a single solution for a problem within a wider network may prove to be ineffective or cause the introduction of new unintended side effects. For instance, having free Park n Ride services to reduce urban congestion may promote an increase in car usage (Parkhurst et al, 2012) and may attract congestion in and around these Park n Ride areas. It is important to understand that while organizational and technological advancements are a welcomed in the transport sector, it does not necessarily enhance the sustainability of travelling and mobility of the nation.
Malaysians love their cars. This also proves to be a challenge as the nation may wrongly interpret and disagree as to the definition of sustainability. Essentially, in a nation such as ours, the question of whether the dominance of personal automobiles can be sustainable is important as Malaysians are highly reliant on their personal automobiles (Choon et al., 2011).
1.4 Problem Statement
This research aims to study the challenges related to implementing smart mobility practices such as integrated public transport systems into our nation. Furthermore, this research hopes to investigate the perceived drawbacks from the perspective of the customer towards current smart mobility options Malaysians have. It is important to note with the implementation of smart mobility models, there will be various implications which arise from different sectors of the nation. This literature aims to research what are the effects of these challenges and how they affect the end user and their behaviour towards these smart mobility practices. This study focuses on the physical and policy shortcomings of the infrastructure that complements smart mobility in our nation.
One problem we face in Malaysia is that due to bad policies and urban planning, Klang Valley lacks a fully integrated transport development that can be used to benchmark against other cities which practice smart networks in other developed nations. It is necessary to look in detail at the creation of an extensive network that is able support the nation as a whole as Malaysia is a small country.
Another problem we can observe is that the major rise in traffic on Malaysian roads. Due to this, traditional methods of transport such as personal automobiles are no longer sufficient to cater to the public’s mobility needs anymore. Smart mobility as we understand it may involve certain sacrifices by society. For instance reducing the use of personal automobiles. Our research hopes to understand how accepting are the residents of Klang Valley’s level of acceptance of smart mobility practices and the level of sacrifice they are willing to accept to implement smart mobility strategies. Consumers preferences may shift towards or away from more integrated forms of transport if it is dependent on the accessibility to smart modes of transport.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What are the challenges faced in implementing smart mobility practices?
2. How willing will be the people to give up their personal automobile?
3. What is the significance of implementation of smart mobility system in Malaysia?
4. How implementing smart mobility transportation system will affect behavioural change of Malaysian people?
1.6 Research Objectives
• To determine the challenges in implementing smart mobility practices
• To determine how willing people will be to give up their personal automobile
• To determine the significance of implementation of smart mobility systems in Malaysia.
• To investigate how implementation of smart mobility transport system will affect behavioral change of the Malaysian people.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The main significancy of this research is focus on implementing smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems. Taking a look at the country of Malaysia for example, its transport system is not fully integrated compared to developed countries with sustainable transport network. Poor transport system in Malaysia hinders economic growth and development. Smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems being one of an economic growth pillar in developing countries (Banister, D, 2008), the Malaysian government should consider implementation of a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems. With this sustainable model implementation, greater strides will be made towards economic growth. The study also focuses on shortcomings arising from lack of sustainable mobility or transport systems in Malaysia and the implications on the end user and their behaviour towards sustainable transport. Finally, knowledge gained in this study will contribute a lot to the Transport Management and Information Communication Technologic (ICT) bodies.
This study is much and timely needed in Malaysia since it can provide major contributions to;
This study mainly focuses on smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems. The proper implementation of a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems will ensure that all shortcomings arising due to lack of a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems in Malaysia are solved. (Banister, D, 2008). To implement this strategy and make sure it runs efficiently, the people as well as the policy makers will have to work together. This initiative will combat issues like over-crowding in public places and traffic congestion on roads and on highways. Smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems should be emphasized by academics and practitioners alike. There is also a lack of an approach to mediating between politicians and smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems planners to help in making some key decisions (Forte, F., Girard, L. F., & Nijkamp, P, 2006).
In order to implement smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems, it is also important to decide about how to incorporate sustainable mobility experts for decision-makers. There are a lot of different aspects that need to be worked out in order to properly implement a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems project. The managerial aspects of such a big project alone would be a huge undertaking. To ensure that such a project is implemented to its fullest, a proper plan needs to be drawn up that clearly indicates all the steps the management takes to implement the project (Forte, F., Girard, L. F., & Nijkamp, P, 2006). Proper management of this initiative will ensure that all the intended work is completed on time and without any extra hidden costs. The end result of a properly managed, well implemented smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems project would be, a better economy because of all the revenue being generated, a better quality of life for the people who will now have access to better facilities and will have easier access to daily necessities, and an overall better digital infrastructure that will aid the development of a better living environment for the people. A further benefit that the smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems project will bring is a decrease in racially motivated crime which will decrease the burden on law enforcement. This as a result will further make it easy to manage the people.
The policies to be followed in implementing smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems must be defined (Christensen, T, 2006). The proper definition of a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems is one which takes in consideration all the aspects of a smart or sustainable mobility idea and implements it in such a way that ultimately ends up improving all aspects of transport systems. These include the daily lives of the people living there, the economic growth, the availability of proper transport network facilities to all the people and an overall betterment in environment. To sustain such a goal and see it to fruition, policy makers must come up with legislature that allows such initiatives to take place in an easy manner. If policies do not aid a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems project, it will become increasingly difficult for people to have proper access to a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems life.
A transparent form of government is what a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems is based on. This ensures that all activities of a government or managing body are accessible to the people. This makes sure that the people have a say in how they are governed and what they should expect of the people they elect.
1.8 Scope of the Study
On the basis of the derivatives as checked, it is obvious that the smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems is a policy with the goal of enhancing sustainable mobility by exploiting modernization and using technology to deal with transport systems issues (Zantalis, F., Koulouras, G., Karabetsos, S., & Kandris, D, 2019). Using prediction models to better understand how to plan and where to transport systems is one of the ways a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems to ensure people are residing in the best possible place for them (Bask, A., Spens, K., Stefansson, G., & Lumsden, K, 2009). In particular, smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems leverage ICT to maximise its effectiveness, which are typically required and useful, by linking various components and actors into a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems that collaborates faultlessly (Bask, A., Spens, K., Stefansson, G., & Lumsden, K, 2009). All these features are combined with broader principles, including social change, economic viability and conservation of the environment. These features are of extreme importance since they are the crux a smart city sits on. A smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems has the proper application of a wide range of electronic and digital technologies to aid in relaying information.
The study therefore outlines the dimensions to be taken by policymakers, planners and transport systems and ICT organs in the construction of a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems and creates a model for sustainable mobility implementation to evaluate existing initiatives.
This study encompasses all aspects of a sustainable mobility transport systems. From the lives of people, to the environmental aspects, this study looks at them all. This study is for the areas that have yet to switch to a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems approach.
The smart mobility practices that a smart government plans to introduce cannot be easily integrated into a society. There are many challenges that need to be dealt with first, before this can be properly implemented. First and foremost, the people need to educated and taken onboard. They need to be told that a smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems project like this is beneficial for them in the long run. It will be difficult at first but will eventually end up being tenfold beneficial (Argyris, C. (1991).
1.9 Key terms and operationalization definition
1.9.1. Smart Economy
For a smart economy to thrive, smart industries both manufacturing and construction process, the application of ICT as well as other sectors that involve ICT in their manufacturing and construction processes have to be implemented (Ismagilova, L. A., Gileva, T. A., Galimova, M. P., & Glukhov, V. V, 2017). Smart Economy is defined as the main base of urban development in a smart community. This model is based on a series of concepts to promote the development, sustainability and attractiveness for new investment, the main ones are: e-business, e-commerce, increase of productivity, employment and innovation in it and generation of new products and services, new models and opportunities for business and entrepreneurship. Matter, and for many reasons that one of the main objectives of the performance of these tasks is mainly a return on the investment, for it is necessary to know the economic impact of the projects to be carried out and whether or not are able to allow savings for the community and be sustainable over time.
1.9.2. Smart Living
Smart living mainly focuses on greatly enhancing residents’ quality life. It associates itself with health, culture, housing, tourism, safety, etc. Smart Living is a trend encompassing advancements that give people the opportunity to benefit from new ways of living. It involves original and innovative solutions aimed at making life more efficient, more controllable, economical, productive, integrated and sustainable. A more harmonious, satisfactory, and fulfilled life will thus co-exist among the residents (Li, J., Jin, J., Yuan, D., Palaniswami, M., & Moessner, K, 2015).
1.9.3. Smart Environment
Utilization of smart technologies to preserve and protect a country’s natural environment is referred as smart environment (Cook, D. J., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M, 2009). Smart environment is categorized by trust and security, deployment of ICT and smart or sustainable mobility or transport systems to enhance safety, cultural initiatives for the digitization of tradition assets.
1.9.4. Smart Mobility
This refers to provision of access to new and innovative technologies, prompting use of these technologies in routine life (Ning, Z., Xia, F., Ullah, N., Kong, X., & Hu, X, 2017). The infrastructure is fundamental provision of support and the ability for all citizens to process and share information instantaneously from any location within the country.
1.9.5 Smart Governance
Active and political participation, residency services and the utilization of e‐government is referred as smart governance (Willke, H, 2007). Besides, it often relates to the deployment of innovative technologies, such as e‐democracy or e‐government (Willke, H, 2007).
1.9.6. Smart People
People with the ability to differentiate components between digital mobility systems are known as smart people (Argyris, C, 1991). Inhabitants are smart in educational levels and skill, as well as the value of social collaboration in terms of incorporation of public life and their capability to communicate with other countries (Argyris, C, 1991).
This chapter contains the body of the current literature as the contents of research problem. The contents of literature discuss about the detail information that related to research study.
The previous research that are done by other authors in the related area of the present study will be reviewed in this chapter. This chapter’s purpose is to provide a theoretical review for better understanding of multimodal transport associated with port terminal.
2.1 Lack of cohesive policies
The primary function of urban sustainability is to integrate and complement the natural environment by reducing environmental impact and promoting physical activity, psychological well-being and healthy societies. In 1995, the Ministry of Urban Welfare, Housing and Local Government were designated as the national point of contact for all matters related to the United Nations Human Settlements Program. Nationwide, the Ministry has implemented several people-friendly programs that provide direct and meaningful assistance, especially for urban residents, to live in comfort and safety. In Malaysia, the urban population is expected to increase from 22.6 million in 2015, which represents 74.3% of the total population to 27.3 million or 79.6% in 2025. The increasing concentration of urban growth and urban population in the country means that strategic planning and implementation are essential. To ensure the sustainability of living conditions for urban residents and meet their needs and requirements. Sustainable cities will lead to happy societies. The primary function of urban sustainability is to integrate and complement the natural environment by reducing environmental impact and promoting physical activity, psychological well-being and healthy societies. Aware of this, the Ministry has implemented various programs for cities to initiate, implement and monitor programs to promote urban well-being in the areas of urban planning, provision of housing and open spaces, health, sanitation, security, peace and happiness. Meanwhile, at the international level, many of the programs in which the Ministry has participated reinforce Malaysia’s commitment to the human settlements program to provide sustainable human settlements. The role in implementing the agenda of the United Nations Human Settlements Program has been further reinforced by the confidence accorded to Malaysia to become the next host of the World Urban Forum 2018 in Kuala Lumpur. With the commitment made in the Human Settlements Program, implementing the New Urban Agenda became a priority for the ministry. In doing so, the Ministry continues with its partners to organize projects and activities for the benefit of the people and their well-being. The Ministry firmly believes that local action can and should be the main driver of global sustainable development (Eleventh Malaysia Plan Book 2016-2020, 2020).
2.2 Physical shortcomings
Physical activity is vital to good health, yet many urban dwellers lead sedentary lifestyles with little exercise. It is common for people to drive to work, take the elevator to their desks, sit most of the day, and return home seated again on their transport. As transportation gains importance in cities, active transportation is being marginalized. As roads expand, pedestrian infrastructure often shrinks. With increased vehicle speeds, cycling becomes dangerous and unattractive. In contrast, more people choose to drive by creating a feedback loop: active mobility is not attractive due to transportation, so more people are choosing to drive, making active mobility less attractive (The Economist, 2018). This limits the amount of exercise and social interaction the residents engage in with negative consequences for their physical and mental health. “Disease has been written into the physical design of many cities, particularly in large cities that depend on transportation and discourage walking and cycling and the associated health benefits, as well as potential social interaction in neighbourhoods where you can walk and be friendly with people” clearer. The leading cause of death in Malaysia is heart disease. This is closely related to diet, physical activity, and weight. In terms of overweight, Malaysia ranks second in East and Southeast Asia (Importance of using pedestrian bridges, 2016). Between 1996 and 2003, the number of adults who were overweight increased by 60%, while the prevalence of obesity doubled. While that rate has slowed, the upward trend has continued: The Malaysian National Survey of Health and Morbidity 2015 found 30% were overweight and 17.7% were obese. The Malaysian Ministry of Health has concluded that ‘most adults only exercise minimal of activity. Increasing walking will not reduce poor diet, but it is an important step (Johari, 2017). “At least 80% of early heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and 40% of cancer can be prevented through a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco products.” Poor pedestrian infrastructure discourages walking, which contributes to ill health by facilitating inactivity. There are more negative consequences for mental health and social well-being. Unattractive cities are not socially integrated and do not facilitate active mobility. Research indicates that we are “less happy in neighbourhoods where transportation and infrastructure prevent us from walking comfortably.” When transportation is the primary mode of transportation, residents tend to become less involved, which promotes “social isolation and higher rates of depression in neighbourhoods dependent on transportation” as this can particularly affect the elderly (Najib launches BRT-Sunway line, 2012). Therefore, ensuring that our cities are designed with accessibility in mind is vital while it is clear that a poor urban form can contribute to ill health, the opposite is also true. Nevertheless, the built environment can also be a potential remedy for chronic disease and a place to prevent disease, if urban planners, designers, politicians, architects, health experts and traffic professionals come together to reinvent and prepare cities to achieve the best health outcomes with minimal environmental impact(The Automobile Association, 2018). Good infrastructure for pedestrians for people to walk to the park or cafes and perform errands on foot. By doing this, they engage and interact with the neighbourhood to create a sense of belonging and promote social cohesion. Since people choose not to use private transportation as their preferred mode of transportation, they normalize active mobility Public transportation. This encourages others to make similar decisions but these options can carry risks (The Economist, 2018).
Smart Mobility Infrastructure
The main concern is making cities better places to live. Transportation harms our safety, as accidents often kill and injure people, especially the most vulnerable. Transport emissions affect air quality and affect the health of everyone who lives in cities. This pollution exceeds the damage locally, but it contributes to global climate change. If people are to choose to walk, cycle, or public transport, they need roads designed with their safety in mind. “For decades, streets have been evaluated based on vehicle movement and driver safety, but the true mobility of the street can only be measured when the safety and movement of all users are considered.” In countries with the fewest road deaths, the focus on safety has shifted from the people who use the roads to the people who design them. Education, training, regulation and implementation. Law is a worthwhile endeavour. However, in order to be effective, they are expensive and require constant investment. The effectiveness of these programs also diminishes over time. The design is not only more effective in reducing collisions, it is also more affordable. Human error is inevitable, but the risk of collision is the result of infrastructure design. “Many deaths occur not from driver error, but from driver error associated with a carelessly designed highway system (Najib, 2018).
Roadside Communication Infrastructure
Road infrastructure to offer wireless connectivity with vehicles and control centres is important to the success implementation of ITS. Intelligent transport systems include many components, specifically, wi-fi conversation, data collection, facts evaluation, and records dissemination. The communications infrastructure on the toll road will allow site visitors facts to be accrued. Relevant companies to facilitate and allocate resources for telecommunications infrastructure. For instance, allocating land for constructing cellular towers and putting in fibre optic cables to make certain connectivity infrastructure and continuous cellular insurance along roads. Resource allocation will be included into the planning stage. With the precise infrastructure, the facts may be processed and implemented to enhance site visitors control, protection control, automation, safety, and the public transportation machine.
The hooked up sensors and digital camera can also act as a vehicle registration quantity detector to implement velocity violations (Automatic Awareness Security System – AwAS). In addition, it features as a machine for collecting traffic statistics, safety at global border manipulate points and overload enforcement infrastructure (Weigh-in-Motion, WiM). Road infrastructure additionally plays an important position in public transportation. The facts gathered through the infrastructure are analysed to offer facts inside the travel plan software or inside the usual software to useful resource in the correct choice of continuing the adventure in an effort to keep away from the crowded region. Connectivity between car-to-infrastructure (V2I), car-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-middle (V2C) and latest development automobile for everything (V2X), inclusive of mobile devices, is critical. For the Multi Lane Free Flow (MLFF) gadget to be effectively applied one hundred% internet connection is a demand; Otherwise, MLFF execution will forestall. The information captured in every facts transaction could be sent to the control centre in real time or in batches. Building Balconies to Provide Infrastructure, For instance, it could be important to install readers, cameras, and many others or the effective use of existing porches may be studied (Eleventh Malaysia Plan Book 2016-2020).
Infrastructure for Autonomous Vehicle (AV)
The Autonomous Vehicle (AV) is supposed if you want to detect road signs and close by barriers when the AV is in motion. Fresh, clean avenue signs and symptoms are important so that the car can decide which path to take and keep away from inflicting threat to other street users. In addition, avenue mark detection is also an AV function with a view to lead the AV direction sign to the existing destination without issues. Direction signs and symptoms need to comprise specific GPS coordinates in addition to vacation spot records consisting of distance and vicinity names. The contemporary pace limit signal is placed on the aspect of the road in your only view. However, it may be stepped forward by using installing sensors that inform the AV they may be riding in the permissible speed limits and alert the AV if they’re driving above the speed limit. Speed restrict symptoms need to be categorized by way of road type in keeping with presently posted routes (National Land Public Transport Master Plan, 2012).
In Malaysia, every bridge has its personal most load capacity to allow the vehicle to bypass. Therefore, the AV has the advantage that it could shop records of the maximum permissible hundreds for bridges and the web page. Autonomous cars, mainly heavy vans, are already privy to their payload and capability for every bridge before the gadget makes a decision which motors will or will not bypass. In some special instances, which include the heavy truck platoon, the lead automobile will decide the wide variety of vehicles in an effort to bypass first before allowing the rest to preserve crossing the bridge. The creation of AV era may want to similarly increase NITMC’s potential and performance thru computerized avenue damage detection. The sensor can stumble on any surface this is uneven to a certain extent a good way to examine the analysing consisting of bumps, grooves or cracks. The statistics obtained from avenue damage detection can make the capable authority restore the street in a shorter time compared to the preceding conventional technique of manually checking the street. In addition, the facts also can be recorded to forecast avenue lifestyles cycle statistics, so that the applicable authority can create a suitable street protection program deliberating charges and labour.
On the other hand, once the road upkeep schedule is set, the schedule can be shared with the general public in order that they are aware of the road restore before beginning their adventure. Therefore, it will benefit both events; the authority and the general public facilitate the system of repairing roads and decrease congestion at the equal time if the public receives the statistics earlier(National Land Public Transport Master Plan, 2012).
Crowdsourcing is a smooth and fee-powerful manner to reap anonymous records from publicly available facts on the Internet about Malaysian transportation offerings. This information can be analysed to gauge standard sentiment for the great of our transportation services for companies to take action quickly. Crowdsourcing is likewise a way to get records from tough-to-attain vicinity like a remote place with the assist of a cell phone. The public can share the records at the site inclusive of accidents, herbal activities and any emergency responses required at that time. Additionally, via crowdsourcing, we can also measure Malaysian visitor’s patterns and traffic congestion to permit applicable agencies to manipulate traffic congestion extra efficaciously (National Internet of Things Strategic, 2019).
Standards, Policies and Regulations
Intelligent delivery systems standards define how systems, merchandise and components of sensible transportation systems can be connected, records alternate and interaction to offer offerings inside the shipping network. ITS requirements are designed to beautify interchange capability and interoperability. The use of standards for shipping companies guarantees that additives from one of kind producers will work collectively. Results include extended efficiency and progressed mobility, safety, compatibility and interoperability inside the industry. Since global standards for ITS are already in vicinity, attention have to receive to adopting the perfect fashionable. For destiny mergers and integrations the satisfactory method is always to expand a commonplace popular and platform for every element of use. Relevant worldwide requirements ought to be carefully decided on and approved to symbolize the platform to be advanced. The shared platform will cope with any future improvements (Brohi, S. N et al, 2018).
2.3 User acceptance
2.3.1 Factor for smart mobility
Advances in mobile technology and information have a profound impact on travel options. The spread of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has allowed people to access real-time traffic conditions and transit time information, allowing them to set and change travel schedules and routes. This pattern is expected to continue and intensify in the future. User-focused navigation is an upcoming trend as travellers will have access to more data and options, giving them more control over preferences and transportation routes. Via smartphones, travellers will have access to more travel options and real-time status for all modes of transportation. Digitizing payments has revolutionized both the ability to pay and the way users are charged for services. Fees will depend on time of day, road congestion, speed, occupancy, even fuel efficiency and carbon emissions, contributing to more efficient traffic management (Brohi, S. N. et al, 2018).
The link between economic development and urbanization has placed urban sustainability on national and urban agendas. Designing sustainable inner city regeneration projects remains a major challenge, particularly in understanding the ways in which physical planning and social issues interact. Urban renewal has been criticized for creating problems related to modernization, displacement, social segregation, lack of coherent spatial planning, high cost of living, poor quality of life, etc. An optimal balance of state / market / civil society forces throughout the decision-making process is critical to achieving sustainable cities, with policies, policies, governance and resources impacting the dynamics and types of redevelopment. This research investigates urban renewal strategies and processes in the Malaysian context by exploring the links between social sustainability and physical planning / urban design. Urban development in Malaysia is examined in the context of an ambitious global city, Kuala Lumpur, where models of regeneration operate at the intersection of models from developed and developing countries (Najib, 2018).
In this section, the arguments about the chain of drivers (drivers of urban change; state / market / civil society; key influences – politics, politics, governance and resources) are presented to consider how urban design is delivered among these contexts and how they shape the types of sustainable renewal of a city centre. The sustainable renewal of the city centre together with the components of sustainable urban design transforms and promotes a better environment for sustainable living in the city centre. Therefore, the types of designs that we can see in the built environment differ in different places (Najib, 2018).
2.4.1 Behavioural Intention
Behavioural intention is basically how much effort a person is willing to give and the degree of determination they have to perform such behaviour. In other words, behavioural intention is “a person’s subjective probability that he or she will perform some behaviour” (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Adoption of smart mobility simply means when a person has started to take initiative towards making smart mobility a part of their lives willingly.
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) suggests that behavioural intention is the best predictor of a person’s actual behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). In this case, when one is believed to have a higher behavioural intention of adopting smart mobility, the more likely it is for the person to actually pick up the behaviour of using smart mobility applications. Therefore, the following hypothesis is derived:
H1: There is a significant positive relationship between behavioural intention and adoption of smart mobility among Malaysians.
2.4.2 Performance Expectancy
Performance expectancy in smart mobility context is defined as the extent where a person believes that usage of smart mobility applications will help him or her to gain benefits or convenience in their daily commute between various destinations. Generally, an individual has a higher likelihood of developing behavioural intention to use smart mobility applications if it brings more convenience and additional benefits compared to using traditional methods of connecting to places.
Performance expectancy has a strong influence on the user’s behavioural intention in usage of new technology such as adoption of smart mobility. Additionally, similar studies on traditional transportation methods conducted by researchers have also shown that performance expectancy is a significant factor of behavioural intention (Farah et al., 2018; Moghavvemi, 2014). Hence, the following hypothesis is deduced:
H2: There is a significant positive relationship between performance expectancy and behavioural intention of smart mobility among Malaysians.
2.4.3 Effort Expectancy
Effort expectancy can be explained as the degree of easiness in terms of using the technology. In other words, effort expectancy relates to the perceived minimum effort required to use smart mobility applications. When it requires very little effort, people would be more likely to develop a stronger behavioural intention on the adoption of smart mobility. Thus, the following hypothesis is deduced:
H3: There is a significant positive relationship between effort expectancy and behavioural intention of smart mobility among Malaysians.
2.4.5 Facilitating conditions
Facilitating conditions are the degree to which a person’s point of view on the current external and internal environment factors overpowers technology barriers and helps the acceptance of new technologies. Facilitating conditions also indicates the availability of, or the accessibility to resources that encourage the adoption of a certain new technology. Basically, a person is not likely to have a strong behavioural intention to adopt smart mobility when he or she does not possess the minimal facilitating conditions.
Based on the UTAUT model (Venkatesh et al., 2003), facilitating conditions has a significant influence on peoples’ behavioural intention in adoption of new technology.
H5: There is a significant positive relationship between facilitating conditions and behavioural intention of smart mobility among Malaysians.
2.5 Conceptual Framework
Figure: 1 Methodological Framework
This diagram show the concept of methodological framework which is based on dependent and independent variable here in this figure show the arrow indicate the connection between dependent variable which is relate to Smart Mobility Transport System. As in figure.1 show the relationship between the dependent and independent variable to express the co-relationship between the variables.
2.6 Summary of Chapter 2
This study demonstrates an overview of the literature closer to the principles of smart towns that use records and conversation generation and technological advances and innovation to cope with urban problems, which includes enhancing the satisfactory of lifestyles, promoting financial growth, and growing smart and secure surroundings. The advertising of powerful urban management practices and the connection among these elements are also mentioned. . By analyzing and extrapolating past studies, these studies observed that distinct lecturers have exceptional opinions approximately the relationship among these factors. Therefore, this observe will affirm the relationship between them to bridge this gap.
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